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  • November 21, 1564 – The Spanish Legazpi-Urdaneta expedition bound for the Philippines sailed from Navidad, Mexico. Its primary aim was to discover a new route to the Islands of the West.
  • November 21, 1849 – Governor General Narciso Claveria issued a decree to adopt a standardized record of names and surnames. The “Claveria Decree” included a list of family names in alphabetical order. The names were based on a catalog of Spanish surnames.
  • November 21, 1898 – The American Commissioners presented an ultimatum and demanded the cession of the entire Philippine archipelago. They also offered to pay Spain USD 20,000,000 and to insert in the treaty of peace a mutual relinquishment of claims.
  • November 21, 1899 - American forces occupied Tarlac, the seat of the fledgling Philippin Republic-on-the-run. General Emilio Aguinaldo was forced to further retreat to the mountains of northern Luzon.

To learn more about Philippine history and literature, visit Filipiniana.net